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Periodic Table Cube

This cube displays the chemical elements of the Periodic Table ranging from element number 1 (H: Hydrogen) to 118 (Uuo: Ununoctium). Colors represent different categories of elements. The Lanthanides are displayed on the upper face and the Actinides on the lower face.

The layout of the Periodic Table Cube was created in 2012 by Werner Kahl and Walter Randelshofer.

The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements, organized on a basis of their properties. Elements are presented in increasing atomic number; while rectangular in general outline, gaps are included in the rows or periods to keep elements with similar properties together, such as the halogens and the noble gases, in columns or groups, forming distinct rectangular areas or blocks. Because the periodic table accurately predicts the properties of various elements and the relations between properties, its use is widespread within chemistry, providing a useful framework for analysing chemical behavior, as well as in other sciences.

The table consists of 7 rows or periods and 18 columns or groups. Elements of the same period have the same number of electron shells; with each group across a period, the elements have one more proton and electron and become less metallic.

The current table was almost simultaneously and independently developed in 1869 by Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) and Lothar Meyer (1930-1895). It was used to illustrate periodic trends in the properties of the then-known elements. The layout has been refined and extended as new elements have been discovered and new theoretical models developed to explain chemical behavior.

All elements from atomic numbers 1 (H: Hydrogen) to 118 (Uuo: Ununoctium) have been isolated. Of these, all up to element 94 (Pu: Plutonium) exist naturally; the rest have only been artificially synthesised in laboratories, along with numerous synthetic radionuclides of naturally occurring elements. Production of elements beyond element 118 (Uuo: Ununoctium) is being pursued, with the question of how the periodic table may need to be modified to accommodate these elements being a matter of ongoing debate.

Periodic Table of Elements

Atomic # Symbol Name Atomic Mass Category
1 H Hydrogen 1.00794 Nonmetal
2 He Helium 4.002602 Noble gases
3 Li Lithium 6.941 Alkali metal
4 Be Beryllium 9.012182 Alkaline earth metal
5 B Boron 10.811 Metalloid
6 C Carbon 12.0107 Nonmetal
7 N Nitrogen 14.0067 Nonmetal
8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Nonmetal
9 F Fluorine 18.9984032 Halogen
10 Ne Neon 20.1797 Noble gases
11 Na Sodium 22.98976928 Alkali metal
12 Mg Magnesium 24.3050 Alkaline earth metal
13 Al Aluminium 26.9815386 Other metal
14 Si Silicon 28.0855 Metalloid
15 P Phosphorus 30.973762 Nonmetal
16 S Sulfur 32.065 Nonmetal
17 Cl Chlorine 35.453 Halogen
18 Ar Argon 39.948 Noble gases
19 K Potassium 39.0983 Alkali metal
20 Ca Calcium 40.078 Alkaline earth metal
21 Sc Scandium 44.955912 Transition metal
22 Ti Titanium 47.867 Transition metal
23 V Vanadium 50.9415 Transition metal
24 Cr Chromium 51.9961 Transition metal
25 Mn Manganese 54.938045 Transition metal
26 Fe Iron 55.845 Transition metal
27 Co Cobalt 58.933195 Transition metal
28 Ni Nickel 58.6934 Transition metal
29 Cu Copper 63.546 Transition metal
30 Zn Zinc 65.38 Transition metal
31 Ga Gallium 69.723 Post-transition metal
32 Ge Germanium 72.63 Metalloid
33 As Arsenic 74.92160 Metalloid
34 Se Selenium 78.96 Nonmetal
35 Br Bromine 79.904 Halogen
36 Kr Krypton 83.798 Noble gases
37 Rb Rubidium 85.4678 Alkali metal
38 Sr Strontium 87.62 Alkaline earth metal
39 Y Yttrium 88.90585 Transition metal
40 Zr Zirconium 91.224 Transition metal
41 Nb Niobium 92.90638 Transition metal
42 Mo Molybdenum 95.96 Transition metal
43 Tc Technetium 98 Transition metal
44 Ru Ruthenium 101.07 Transition metal
45 Rh Rhodium 102.90550 Transition metal
46 Pd Palladium 106.42 Transition metal
47 Ag Silver 107.8682 Transition metal
48 Cd Cadmium 112.411 Transition metal
49 In Indium 114.818 Post-transition metal
50 Sn Tin 118.710 Post-transition metal
51 Sb Antimony 121.760 Metalloid
52 Te Tellurium 127.60 Metalloid
53 I Iodine 126.90447 Halogen
54 Xe Xenon 131.293 Noble gases
55 Cs Caesium 132.9054519 Alkali metal
56 Ba Barium 137.33 Alkaline earth metal
57 La Lanthanum 138.90547 Lanthanide
58 Ce Cerium 140.116 Lanthanide
59 Pr Praseodymium 140.90765 Lanthanide
60 Nd Neodymium 144.242 Lanthanide
61 Pm Promethium (145) Lanthanide
62 Sm Samarium 150.36 Lanthanide
63 Eu Europium 151.964 Lanthanide
64 Gd Gadolinium 157.25 Lanthanide
65 Tb Terbium 158.92535 Lanthanide
66 Dy Dysprosium 162.500 Lanthanide
67 Ho Holmium 164.93032 Lanthanide
68 Er Erbium 167.259 Lanthanide
69 Tm Thulium 168.93421 Lanthanide
70 Yb Ytterbium 173.054 Lanthanide
71 Lu Lutetium 174.9668 Lanthanide
72 Hf Hafnium 178.49 Transition metal
73 Ta Tantalum 180.94788 Transition metal
74 W Tungsten 183.84 Transition metal
75 Re Rhenium 186.207 Transition metal
76 Os Osmium 190.23 Transition metal
77 Ir Iridium 192.217 Transition metal
78 Pt Platinum 195.084 Transition metal
79 Au Gold 196.966569 Transition metal
80 Hg Mercury 200.59 Transition metal
81 Tl Thallium 204.3833 Post-transition metal
82 Pb Lead 207.2 Post-transition metal
83 Bi Bismuth 208.98040 Post-transition metal
84 Po Polonium (209) Metalloid
85 At Astatine (210) Halogen
86 Rn Radon (222) Noble gases
87 Fr Francium (223) Alkali metal
88 Ra Radium (226.03) Alkaline earth metal
89 Ac Actinium (227) Actinide
90 Th Thorium 232.0381 Actinide
91 Pa Protactinium 231.03588 Actinide
92 U Uranium 238.02891 Actinide
93 Np Neptunium (237) Actinide
94 Pu Plutonium (244) Actinide
95 Am Americium (243) Actinide
96 Cm Curium (247) Actinide
97 Bk Berkelium (247) Actinide
98 Cf Californium (251) Actinide
99 Es Einsteinium (252) Actinide
100 Fm Fermium (257) Actinide
101 Md Mendelevium (258) Actinide
102 No Nobelium (259) Actinide
103 Lr Lawrencium (262) Actinide
104 Rf Rutherfordium (267) Transition metal
105 Db Dubnium (268) Transition metal
106 Sg Seaborgium (269) Transition metal
107 Bh Bohrium (270) Transition metal
108 Hs Hassium 269 Transition metal
109 Mt Meitnerium (278) unknown
110 Ds Darmstadtium (281) unknown
111 Rg Roentgenium (281) unknown
112 Cn Copernicium (285) Transition metal
113 Uut Ununtrium (286) unknown
114 Uuq (Fl) Ununquadium (Flerovium) (289) unknown
115 Uup Ununpentium (288) unknown
116 Uuh (Lv) Ununhexium (Livermorium) (293) unknown
117 Uus Ununseptium (294) unknown
118 Uuo Ununoctium (294) unknown
Notes

Ununquadium is the temporary name of a radioactive chemical element with the temporary symbol Uuq and atomic number 114. As of December 1, 2011, the name Flerovium (after Soviet physicist Georgy Flyorov, the founder of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, where the element was discovered) is in the IUPAC name approval process.

Ununhexium is the temporary name of a synthetic superheavy element with the temporary symbol Uuh and atomic number 116. As of December 1, 2011, the name Livermorium is in the IUPAC name approval process.

© Walter Randelshofer. All rights reserved.