Virtual Cubes

Morse Cube

Activate JavaScript to see the Virtual Cubes!

Morse Cube

This cube can display Morse Code characters in a 2 x 3 array on a selected face. Left to the Morse Code character, the corresponding letter or numeral can be displayed. The 2 x 3 array allows to display all Morse Code characters with up to six 'dots' or 'dashes'.

The layout of the Morse Cube was created in 2008, 2018 by Walter Randelshofer and André Boulouard.

Morse Code

Morse Code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment. It is named for Samuel F. B. Morse, an inventor of the telegraph. The International Morse Code encodes the ISO basic Latin alphabet, some extra Latin letters, the Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals (prosigns) as standardized sequences of short and long signals called 'dots' and 'dashes',' or 'dits' and 'dahs', as in amateur radio practice. Because many non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to the Morse alphabet exist for those languages.

Each Morse Code symbol represents either a text character (letter or numeral) or a prosign and is represented by a unique sequence of dots and dashes. The dot duration is the basic unit of time measurement in code transmission. The duration of a dash is three times the duration of a dot. Each dot or dash is followed by a short silence, equal to the dot duration. The letters of a word are separated by a space equal to three dots (one dash), and the words are separated by a space equal to seven dots. To increase the speed of the communication, the code was designed so that the length of each character in Morse is approximately inverse to its frequency of occurrence in English. Thus the most common letter in English, the letter 'E', has the shortest code, a single dot.

In an emergency, Morse Code can be sent by improvised methods that can be easily 'keyed' on and off, making it one of the simplest and most versatile methods of telecommunication. The most common distress signal is SOS – three dots, three dashes, and three dots – internationally recognized by treaty.

Morse Code Decoding Table for up to 4 Signals

1 Signal 2 Signals 3 Signals 4 Signals

T, t
– –
M, m
– – –
O, o
– – – –
CH, ch
– – – ·
Ö, ö
– – ·
G, g
– – · –
Q, q
– – · ·
Z, z
– ·
N, n
– · –
K, k
– · – –
Y, y
– · – ·
C, c
– · ·
D, d
– · · –
X, x
– · · ·
B, b
·
E, e
· –
A, a
· – –
W, w
· – – –
J, j
· – – ·
P, p
· – ·
R, r
· – · –
Ä, ä
· – · ·
L, l
· ·
I, i
· · –
U, u
· · – –
Ü, ü
· · – ·
F, f
· · ·
S, s
· · · –
V, v
· · · ·
H, h

Some methods of teaching Morse Code use a Dichotomic Search Table. This table branches for each 'dash' and 'dot' until the character representation is exhausted.

Letters

Morse Code Character Description
· – A, a  
– · · · B, b  
– · – · C, c  
– · · D, d  
· E, e  
· · – · F, f  
– – · G, g  
· · · · H, h  
· · I, i  
· – – – J, j  
– · – K, k Prosign for 'Invitation to Transmit'.
· – · · L, l  
– – M, m  
– · N, n  
– – – O, o  
· – – · P, p  
– – · – Q, q  
· – · R, r  
· · · S, s  
T, t  
· · – U, u  
· · · – V, v  
· – – W, w  
– · · – X, x  
– · – – Y, y  
– – · · Z, z  

Numerals

Morse Code Character
– – – – – 0
· – – – – 1
· · – – – 2
· · · – – 3
· · · · – 4
· · · · · 5
– · · · · 6
– – · · · 7
– – – · · 8
– – – – · 9

Punctuation

Morse Code Character Description
· – · – · – . Period
– – · · – – , Comma
· · – – · · ? Question Mark
· – – – – · ' Apostrophe
– · – · ‐ ‐ ! Exclamation Mark
KW digraph. Not in ITU-R recommendation.
– · · – · / Slash, Fraction Bar
– · – ‐ · ( Left Parenthesis
– · – ‐ · – ) Right Parenthesis
· – · · · & Ampersand
AS digraph. Prosign for 'Wait'.
– – – · · · : Colon
– · – · – · ; Semicolon
Not in ITU-R recommendation.
– · · · – = Double Dash
· – · – · + Plus Sign
– · · · · – - Hyphen, Minus Sign
· · – – · – _ Underscore
Not in ITU-R recommendation.
· – · · – · " Quotation Mark
· · · – · · – $ Dollar Sign
SX digraph. Not in ITU-R recommendation.
Can not be displayed on the cube!
· – – · – · @ At Sign
AC digraph.

The symbols !, & and $ are not defined inside the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) recommendation on Morse Code, but conventions for them exist. The @ symbol was formally added in 2004.

Exclamation Mark

There is no standard representation for the Exclamation Mark (!), although the KW digraph (– · – · ‐ ‐) was proposed in the 1980s by the Heathkit Company (a vendor of assembly kits for amateur radio equipment).

While Morse Code translation software prefers the Heathkit version, on-air use is not yet universal as some amateur radio operators in North America and the Caribbean continue to prefer the older MN digraph (– – – ·) carried over from American landline telegraphy code.

Ampersand

The representation of the & Sign given above, often shown as AS, is also the Morse prosign for wait. In addition, the American landline representation of an Ampersand was similar to 'ES' (· · · ·) and hams have carried over this usage as a synonym for 'and' (WX HR COLD ES RAINY, «the weather here is cold & rainy»).

Currency symbols

The ITU has never codified formal Morse Code representations for currencies as the ISO 4217 Currency Codes are preferred for transmission.

The $ Sign code was represented in the Phillips Code, a huge collection of abbreviations used on land line telegraphy, as SX.

Keyboard AT @

On May 24, 2004 – the 160th anniversary of the first public Morse telegraph transmission – the Radiocommunication Bureau of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) formally added the @ ('commercial at' or 'commat') character to the official Morse character set, using the sequence denoted by the AC digraph (· – – · – ·) .

This sequence was reportedly chosen to represent 'A[T] C[OMMERCIAL]' or a letter 'a' inside a swirl represented by a 'C'. The new character facilitates sending email addresses by Morse Code and is notable since it is the first official addition to the Morse set of characters since World War I.

Prosigns

Morse Code Character Description
· · · – · –   Prosign for 'End of Work'
· · · · · · · ·   Prosign for 'Error'
Can not be displayed on the cube!
– · – K, k Prosign for 'Invitation to Transmit'
– · – · –   Prosign for 'Starting Signal'
· – · – ·   Prosign for 'New Page Signal'
AR digraph. Message separator.
Single-line display may use printed '+'.
· · · – · Ŝ, ŝ Prosign for 'Understood'
· – · · · & Prosign for 'Wait'

Prosigns for Morse Code are special (usually) unwritten procedural signals or symbols that are used to indicate changes in communications protocol status or white space text formatting actions.

Non-English Extensions

Morse Code Character Description
· – – · – À, à A with grave
Shared by À, à, Å, å.
· – · – Ä, ä A with diaeresis
Shared by Ä, ä, Æ, æ, Ą, ą.
· – – · – Å, å A with ring above
Shared by À, à, Å, å.
· – · – Ą, ą A with ogonek
Shared by Ä, ä, Æ, æ, Ą, ą.
· – · – Æ, æ AE
Shared by Ä, ä, Æ, æ, Ą, ą.
– · – · · Ć, ć C with acute
Shared by Ć, ć, Ĉ, ĉ, Ç, ç.
– · – · · Ĉ, ĉ C with circumflex
Shared by Ć, ć, Ĉ, ĉ, Ç, ç.
– · – · · Ç, ç C with cedilla
Shared by Ć, ć, Ĉ, ĉ, Ç, ç.
– – – – CH, ch CH
Shared by CH, ch, Ĥ, ĥ, Š, š.
· · – · · Đ, đ D with stroke
Not to be confused with Eth (Ð, ð).
Shared by Đ, đ, É, é, Ę, ę.
· · – – · Ð, ð Eth
Not to be confused with D with stroke (Đ, đ).
· · – · · É, é E with acute
Shared by Đ, đ, É, é, Ę, ę.
É is the only accented character included in ITU-R recommendation.
· – · · – È, è E with grave
Shared by È, è, Ł, ł.
· · – · · Ę, ę E with ogonek
Shared by Đ, đ, É, é, Ę, ę.
– – · – · Ĝ, ĝ G with circumflex
– – – – Ĥ, ĥ H with circumflex
Shared by CH, ch, Ĥ, ĥ, Š, š.
· – – – · Ĵ, ĵ J with circumflex
· – · · – Ł, ł L with stroke
Shared by È, è, Ł, ł.
– – · – – Ń, ń N with acute
Shared by Ń, ń, Ñ, ñ.
– – · – – Ñ, ñ N with tilde
Shared by Ń, ń, Ñ, ñ.
– – – · Ó, ó O with acute
Shared by Ó, ó, Ö, ö, Ø, ø.
– – – · Ö, ö O with diaeresis
Shared by Ó, ó, Ö, ö, Ø, ø.
– – – · Ø, ø O with stroke
Shared by Ó, ó, Ö, ö, Ø, ø.
· · · – · · · Ś, ś S with acute
Can not be displayed on the cube!
· · · – · Ŝ, ŝ S with circumflex
Prosign for 'Understood'.
– – – – Š, š S with caron
Shared by CH, ch, Ĥ, ĥ, Š, š.
· – – · · Þ, þ Thorn
· · – – Ü, ü U with diaeresis
Shared by Ü, ü, Ŭ, ŭ.
· · – – Ŭ, ŭ U with breve
Shared by Ü, ü, Ŭ, ŭ.
– – · · – · Ź, ź Z with acute
– – · · – Ż, ż Z with dot above
© Walter Randelshofer. All rights reserved.